Friday, 1 April 2011

INNOVATION - European Union

96 p.


Innovation Policy Blog

Innovation policy in the postwar period

livro - ótimo

Relatório do Reino Unido - inovaunicamp


Autor(es): Antonio Ibañez Ruiz Correio Braziliense - 18/06/2011

É cada vez maior a participação da ciência e da tecnologia no universo da economia e no desenvolvimento sustentável das nações. Isso se deve ao fato de que o crescimento econômico dos países está cada vez mais dependente da competitividade das empresas que têm por base o desenvolvimento científico e tecnológico e como objetivo a inovação. .......

New report: The new geography of global innovation

While the US and Japan remain leaders in global science and technology innovation, increased competition from growth markets, notably China, suggests a changing landscape. According to a new report by the Global Markets Institute at Goldman Sachs, research and development spending in Asia surpassed EU levels in 2005, and is likely to overtake US levels in the next five years, thanks primarily to striking growth in R&D investment in China. The new geography of global innovation is further supported by the globalization of higher education, particular in science and engineering (S&E) fields.
Measures of R&D intensity, or R&D investment as a share of GDP, allow for cross-country comparisons of commitment to R&D. R&D intensity has remained flat across G7 markets during the last decade at 2.1%. In China it has impressively doubled as a share of GDP since 1999, reaching 1.5%, which remains low by international standards.
R&D investment is driven largely by the corporate sector, which finances more than two-thirds of total R&D spending in many countries. Companies in a range of industries, from pharmaceuticals to technology hardware, have exposure to new hubs of global innovation.

Pipeline concerns and the role of human capital

The new geography of global innovation is critically dependent upon higher education in science and engineering (S&E) fields. Student interest in S&E is low in G7 countries, suggesting that these markets are likely to have difficulty replacing an aging cohort of native-born scientists and engineers. Reliance on foreign-born skilled labor is set to rise further as the world’s S&E skill base shifts toward Asia, notably China, where S&E fields represent 40% of all new university degrees awarded (more than two and a half times US levels).

New geography demands a policy response

Innovation-led productivity growth in the G7 will increasingly require public policies which attract and retain skilled foreign students and workers. In the short term, a more flexible and talent-friendly immigration regime can help developed economies and companies to benefit from the globalization of S&E skills. Longer-term investments in R&D and science education can further enable G7 countries to remain competitive by rebuilding student interest in S&E fields and by expanding the domestic supply of skilled S&E labor.
By Douglas Gilman, Goldman Sachs & Co.

Innovation and Innovation Policy in France

Overview of Innovation Policy

Many policy efforts have been deployed in France these last years to face innovation challenges. One of the major challenges in France deals with the need to increase synergies between public and private research with a view to increase the private sector expenditure on R&D. Indeed, with 2.08% of its GDP devoted to R&D expenditure in 2007, France continues to proportionally reduce its R&D expenses and to move away from the 3% Lisbon objective (2010), both in terms of the overall rate and in terms of the distribution between private and public expenditure. The other major challenge deals with the need to foster innovation in SMEs as well as supporting existing innovative SMEs in their growth. According to national statistics, there are 2.5 million SMEs in France that is to say 97.6% of all enterprises representing 6.9 millions employees.
In order to tackle the French challenges, these innovation policy actors, mainly at the national level but also at the regional level, have recently developed or reinforce an array of support measures. New support measures have been created (the competitiveness clusters) and other have been reinforces (research tax credit). A strong emphasis was given to SMEs with an increased funding devoted to the OESO agency.
The policy efforts of the French actors have come along with several major changes in the course of the last years in terms of innovation policy governance.
The implementation aspects of the policies are increasingly falling into the agencies responsibilities. From 2005, and in order to separate the steering of research and innovation policy from its implementation and effective support, agencies were given a larger place in the French system. Two main agencies, the National Agency for Research (ANR) created in 2005 and OSEO, the SME agency are today dealing with research and innovation. This change in policy governance was a trial and error process since one of the newly created agency (AII) was soon merged with OSEO. Taking over the AII responsibilities, which has been created to support large-scale industrial project, OSEO now evolves towards larger and developing enterprises. Other actors, the Regional councils tend to gain powers over the years. Some Regional councils, of which the large innovative regions (Provence Alpes Cote d’Azur and Rhone Alpes) as well as smaller regions (Aquitaine, Bretagne for instance) have started to design comprehensive innovation support policies.
In terms of governance, France is also developing a more systematic evaluation of its policies. Several major pieces of the innovation policy has been evaluated (Support to projects by Young innovative enterprises, FR58), Research tax credit (CIR, FR109), the competitiveness clusters, the national competition for the creation of new-technology based firm (FR11) or the regional incubators structure (FR12).
France has, for the very first time in 2009, launched a work to define a national strategy for research and innovation that should ground future budgetary decisions. The strategy that must be ready by June 2009 shall be based on proposals of several thematic groups gathering private and public research and innovation actors as well as representatives from the civil society. The strategy shall also take into account the result of a large internet public consultation. This type of exercise is completely new and may produce new policy orientations.


France: Innovation System and Innovation Policy

Reconceptualizing innovation policy. The case of France
Blanka Vavakova 

Volume 26, Issue 4, April 2006, Pages 444-462
Available online 11 November 2004. 


In March 2004, French researchers from the public research sector staged a protest movement unprecedented in its scope and length. The paper situates this conflict within the evolution of French innovation policies, notably with regard to the public research sector and its relationship to industry. Since the crisis of the 1970s it had become evident that French firms invested little in research and development when compared to their competitors. Since 1982, a succession of innovation policies were thus put in place to deal with this problem by enhancing the contribution of public sector research to the innovative performance of national industry. This paper analyzes these shifts in policy and the unexpected and often contradictory results that they have produced over time. These have included a rise in contract research but a decline in patenting activity by public sector research institutes, conflicts over the direct appropriation of benefits by research institutions and the holding of roles and functions concurrently across public and private sectors by researchers in these institutions and throughout, the continued under performance of French firms in R&D.
Keywords: Innovation policy; France; Public research sector; Research–industry co-operation; R&D; Firms; Spin-off

Innovation and Innovation Policy in USA

COM TEXTO ABAIXO., sintetizando

Innovation Policy (IPE)

Scott Stern, Director
    In the past few years there has been an increasing appreciation of how important innovation is to the economy, for instance as we saw the technology sector lead the economy into boom and then bust, witnessed the number of patent filings by U.S. corporations, or read the business press coverage of innovations . At the same time, there is active debate regarding the implications of rapid technological change for economic policy, and the appropriate policies and programs regarding research, innovation, and the commercialization of new technology. These debates encompass long-standing issues, such as the appropriate level and form of public support of research, the gap between publicly-funded research and technology commercialization, and the effect of health and safety regulation on innovation. There are also newer issues, such as the evolving role of intellectual property and the appropriate antitrust treatment of software and other industries in which technology standards play a key role, as well as the relationship between innovation and entrepreneurship. The NBER's Innovation Policy (IPE) Working Group seeks to foster research by economists and other social scientists on the interactions between public policy and the innovation process, and to provide communication mechanisms between researchers and the policy community. Interactions between and among researchers and others working in government, business, and non-profit organizations can improve the timeliness, policy-relevance, and focus of academic research. At the same time, easier access to the findings of policy-oriented research can improve public policy decision-making. In keeping with general NBER traditions, the Group's activities involve many policy issues and provide useful information without making policy recommendations.
  • New! The Global Science Research Project

Innovation must be about adopting something new
The public sector likes to talk about innovation but with a new context and better understanding, it now needs to be about action, explains Richard Wilson

Posted by Richard Wilson Tuesday 30 August 2011 Guardian Professional

Carta IEDI n. 482 -
A Transformação da China em Economia Orientada à Inovação
Parte 1
Publicado em 26/08/2011
A China planeja se tornar um dos países-líderes mundiais em tecnologia e inovação até 2020.

Publicado em: 16/09/2011
A China planeja se tornar um dos países-líderes mundiais em tecnologia e inovação até 2020.


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